Recurrent Training

The goal of a recurrent training is to maintain a high level of knowledge and skill.
Recurrent training session should be challenging and fun.

Generic VFR / IFR

Flight Review

Instrument Proficiency

Single-Engine Checkout VFR

Single-Engine Checkout IFR

Multiengine Checkout w/ IPC

Commercial Flight Review

Cessna 414
Ground Training
Flight Training
Cessna Citation
Cessna 550
Lear 35

Part 135

Transport Category Turbojet

 Checkout questionnaire and a Checkout Data Sheet for a single-engine aircraft




If you haven't flown in a while, take a look at the changes in Aviation through the years.



GENERAL LIMITATIONS - HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT. Index Under 14CFR Section 61.31(e), a private or commercial pilot may not act as PIC of a high performance airplane [one that has more than 200 horsepower (or the equivalent thrust from a turbine engine), or that has a retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller] unless he or she has received flight instruction in such an airplane from an authorized flight instructor, and that flight instructor has certified in the pilot’s logbook that he or she is competent to pilot a high performance airplane. However, this instruction is not required if the pilot has logged flight time as PIC in high performance airplanes before November 1, 1973.

a. To assist pilots in transitioning to individual makes and models of high performance airplanes, the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) has developed a Transition Training Master Syllabus (GAMA Specification No. 5). This publication is intended to assist CFI’s and other training providers in developing transition guides for individual makes and models of high performance airplanes, and to provide structured differences training for transition between similar makes and models of a given manufacturer. Information on obtaining this publication may be found in the current issue of AC 61-103, or by contacting GAMA directly at:

General Aviation Manufacturers Association
1400 K Street, NW., Suite 801
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 393-1500


b. In order to properly structure and record transition training in a high performance airplane, the CFI should plan a transition program tailored to the needs of the pilot requesting the training. A suggested format for developing such a plan is contained in Appendix 4. The format is designed to incorporate the elements suggested in the GAMA publication, and yet still provide the CFI with flexibility in developing an individual transition guide tailored to a specific pilot’s needs. The CFI may wish to retain the completed guide as a record of the scope and content of the transition training given, even though the record is not required by 14CFR Section 61.189.

c. CFI’s and pilots should note that a recreational pilot may not act as PIC of an aircraft that is certificated for more than four occupants, that has more than 180 horsepower, or that has retractable landing gear.

d. Pilots should be aware that significant variations may exist within a basic make and model series of aircraft, even for non-high performance aircraft. For example, there are significant powerplant, systems, performance, and other differences between a Cessna 172D and a Cessna 172Q. At a minimum, pilots should conduct their own differences training and familiarization by studying the POH, AFM and/or other information sources before operating a significant variant of a specific make and model aircraft. The FAA recommends that pilots obtain such training from an appropriately rated and qualified CFI. Pilots should also be aware that 14CFR Section 91.103 requires that each PIC should, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight.

TRAINING REQUIREMENTS - HIGH ALTITUDE AIRCRAFT. Index The requirements applicable to transition training in pressurized high altitude airplanes are specified in 14CFR Section 61.31(f). The rule states that no person may act as PIC of a pressurized airplane that has a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude, whichever is lower, above 25,000 feet MSL unless that person has completed ground and flight training in high altitude operations and has received a logbook or training record endorsement from an authorized instructor certifying satisfactory completion of the training. However, the rule does not apply to pilots who have completed certain proficiency checks or who have served as PIC of a high altitude airplane before March 15, 1991.


a. Recommended training to meet the high altitude training requirements may be found in the current issue of AC 61-107.

b. The instruction and endorsements specified in 14CFR Section 61.31(e) and (f) are one-time only requirements and need not be met for each make and model of high performance and high altitude airplane in which a person plans to act as PIC.

c. Before conducting transition training in a high performance and/or high altitude airplane, a CFI should consider his or her own qualifications and currency in that particular aircraft. Guidelines for making such an assessment are contained in the GAMA publication cited in paragraph 11a.

d. The guidance in this chapter is not intended to apply to transition to an aircraft requiring a type rating. Type rating training requirements are specified in 14CFR Section 61.63, Section 61.157, and 14CFR Part 141, Appendices F and H. A generic curriculum for such training is contained in the current issue of AC 61-89.

SOLO OPERATIONS FOR WHICH THE PILOT DOES NOT HOLD A CATEGORY AND CLASS RATING. Index  A person may not act as PIC of an aircraft that is carrying another person or is operated for compensation or hire, unless that person holds a category and class rating for that aircraft; however, subject to the previous restrictions, a person may act as PIC of an aircraft in solo flight without holding a category and class rating appropriate to that aircraft if he or she has received the flight instruction and endorsement required by 14CFR Section 61.31(d), or has soloed and logged PIC time in that category and class of aircraft before November 1, 1973.


a. The instruction required by 14CFR Section 61.31(d)(2) must be in the pilot operations required by 14CFR Part 61, appropriate to that category and class of aircraft for first solo, and must be given to the pilot by an appropriately rated CFI who, upon finding the pilot competent to solo that category and class of aircraft, so endorses the pilot’s logbook. The format for the required endorsement is contained in the current issue of AC 61-65.

b. CFI’s should be aware that the provisions of 14CFR Section 61.31(d) were intended to facilitate a pilot’s need to acquire solo flight time in the pursuit of a category and class rating in that aircraft. This 14CFR section was not intended to encourage unlimited or unrestricted solo operations for an indefinite time period. Accordingly, the CFI should determine the intentions of any pilot seeking such an endorsement and should consider such requests only in cases where pilots are seeking to acquire additional category and/or class ratings. In any case, CFI’s should consult 14CFR Section 61.87 to determine the criteria for first solo, and may also wish to consult the appropriate PTS before advising pilots on what will be required to obtain a solo category and class endorsement. After providing the required instruction, a CFI may want to consider the need for an endorsement which restricts the pilot’s operations to whatever extent the CFI considers necessary in the interest of safety. For example, the endorsement might limit the pilot to local operations only, or to flight in day-VFR conditions only. Finally, the CFI may want to include an expiration date on the endorsement which coincides with the date by which the applicant is expected to have completed the practical test. Before undertaking the instruction leading to such an endorsement, the CFI should explain to the pilot the instructor’s prerogative to issue an endorsement containing restrictions.

EXCEPTION Index OF EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT FROM CATEGORY AND CLASS RATING REQUIREMENTS. Under 14CFR Section 61.31(f)(3), the category and class rating limitations of 14CFR Section 61.31 do not apply to operation of aircraft certificated as experimental. This includes aircraft originally certificated as other than experimental, but subsequently modified, as well as amateur-built experimental aircraft.


a. Pilots should approach transition to an experimental aircraft in a manner similar to that used for any new aircraft make and model. The objective in conducting a transition training program should be to ensure that the pilot has accomplished the most comprehensive preparation possible under the circumstances, appropriate to the aircraft and type of operation planned.

b. Pilots should be aware that transition to an experimental make and model aircraft may present unusual considerations and difficulties. For example, a qualified CFI or other person may not be available to conduct instruction, the aircraft may be single-place only, or there may be a lack of comprehensive operating information.

AMATEUR-BUILT AIRCRAFT AND SURPLUS MILITARY AIRCRAFT. Index  Both amateur-built aircraft and surplus military aircraft present unique requirements for CFI’s and owner-operators. CFI’s should carefully consider their own qualifications in such highly individual aircraft before agreeing to provide instruction in them.

a. Special considerations apply to initial operation and flight testing of newly constructed amateur-built aircraft. For guidance in such situations, pilots should consult the latest issue of AC 90-89, Amateur-Built Aircraft Flight Testing Handbook.

b. Additional considerations apply to operation of surplus military aircraft which may require pilots to hold a Letter of Authorization issued by the FAA. Individuals contemplating operation of such aircraft should inquire about the required procedures at an FAA FSDO.



TAILWHEEL AIRCRAFT.Index   The general flight experience requirements specified in 14CFR Section 61.57(c) state that pilots who act as PIC of a tailwheel aircraft carrying passengers or certificated for more than one required pilot flight crewmember must have made three landings to a full stop within the preceding 90 days to maintain currency.

a. Under 14CFR Section 61.31(g), no person may act as PIC of a tailwheel airplane unless that pilot has received flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor who has found the pilot competent to operate a tailwheel airplane and has made a one-time endorsement so stating in the pilot’s logbook. The endorsement must certify that the pilot is competent in normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings, wheel landings (unless the manufacturer has recommended against wheel landings), and go-around procedures. The endorsement is not required if a pilot has logged flight time as PIC of tailwheel airplanes before March 15, 1991.

b. In addition to the requirements specified in 14CFR Section 61.31(g), the FAA recommends that pilots obtain a thorough checkout and transition training for each make and model of tailwheel airplane to be flown due to significant differences in operating characteristics of individual tailwheel airplanes. For example, many older types of tailwheel airplanes have pronounced or unusual stall and spin characteristics which differ greatly from those of more recently certificated tailwheel airplanes. In addition, many older airplanes may lack the comprehensive operating data and information typically found in pilot operating handbooks for comparable newer airplanes. Also, systems taken for granted in newer model airplanes may not exist in older aircraft, requiring a pilot to be familiar with unusual or seldom-used procedures. For example, the absence of electrical systems on many older aircraft compels the pilot to be familiar with hand propping procedures. The absence of attitude and heading gyroscopic instruments requires the pilot to depend more heavily on visual and other cues for basic aircraft control.

Finally, the lack of radio equipment in many tailwheel airplanes obligates the pilot to be current in navigation by pilotage and no-radio traffic pattern procedures.

c. Additional factors may affect the instructional environment in tailwheel airplanes equipped with tandem seating. These factors may include reduced visibility from the rear seat, difficulty in communicating with the student due to seating position and higher noise levels, and lack of complete instrumentation or aircraft controls for the pilot in the rear seat.

d. Before conducting checkouts or other training in tailwheel airplanes, CFI’s should carefully review their own qualifications. Most newly-certificated CFI’s will have had little or no experience in tailwheel aircraft and will need comprehensive checkouts and transition training in tailwheel airplanes before giving instruction in them.